Stilbella fimetaria
Stilbella fimetaria (Pers.) Lindau, Verh. bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenb. 47: 75 (1905)


Gefunden: am 07.12.2015 in MTB 4804/2 Mönchengladbach auf älteren Hundekot und Kaninchendung.
Sporengröße: 4,7 - 6,6 x 2,1 - 2,8 mµ

leg. Bender, conf. / det. / rev. N.Heine
Stilbella erythrocephala  (Pers.) Lindau 1905
syn.: Stilbella fimetaria (Pers.) Höhn. 1916 

Der ältere Name ist fimetaria, weswegen erythrocephala in die Synomymie rutschen sollte!

So jedenfalls schreibt es Keith A. Seifert in seiner Monographie.

Keith A. Seifert - A Monograph of Stilbella and some allied Hyphomycetes
Studies in Mycology 27, 1985

1. Stilbella fimetaria (Pers.) Lindau - Figs 4, 7, 8, 16 b, c.

     Leotia fimetaria Pers. - Obs. mycol. 2: 21. 1799 = Helotium fimetarium (Pers.) Pers. - Syn. meth. Fung., p. 678. 1801 = Peziza ß Helotium fimetarium Pers.: Fr. - Syst. mycol. 2: 157. 1822 = Stilbum fimetarium (Pers.) Berk. & Br. - Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., Ser. 2, 5: 465. 1850 = Botryonipha fimetaria (Pers.) O. Kuntze - Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 845. 1891 = Stilbella fimetaria (Pers.) Lindau - Verh. bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenb. 47: 75. 1905 = Dendrostilbella fimetaria (Pers.) Höhnel - Öst. bot. Z. 66: 110. 1916 (as fimetoria).
     Clavaria mucerdae Schum. - Enum. Plant. Saell. 2: 408. 1803, fide Lindau (1910).
     Stilbum erythrocephalum Ditmar - Sturm Deutschl. Fl. 1: 91. 1816: Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 302. 1832 = Botryonipha erythrocephala (Ditm.) O. Kuntze - Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 845. 1891 = Stilbella erythrocephala (Ditm.) Lindau apud Engler & Prantl - Natürl. Pflanzenfam., Teil 1, Abt. 1**, p. 489. 1900.
     Stilbum leiopus Ehrenb. - Sylvae mycol. Berol. p. 24. 1818 = Botryonipha leiopus (Ehrenb.) O. Kuntze - Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 845. 1891 = Stilbella leiopus (Ehrenb.) Lindau apud Engler und Prantl. - Natürl. Pflanzenfam., Teil 1, Abt. 1 **, p. 489. 1900.
     ?Hydrophora mucerdae Fr.: Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 315. 1832, fide Lindau (1910).
     Stilbum leiopus var. majus Thümen - Fungi austr. no. 1184. 1874.
     Tubercularia lichenicola Sacc. - Michelia 2: 561. 1882 = Knyaria lichenicola (Sacc.) 0. Kuntze - Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 856. 1891.
     Stilbum caninum Cooke & Massee - Grevillea 20: 36. 1891.
     Stilbella dielsiana I. Reichert - Bot. Jb. 56: 725. 1921.
     Stilbum coprophilum Mats. - Microfungi of the Solomon Islands and Papua-New Guinea, p. 62. 1971.

Stilbella fimetaria can be recognized by the white synnemata which are usually villose when fresh, the pink to orange conidial mass, the almost random branching of the conidiophores, the obovoid to ellipsoidal conidia, and the [p. 44] coprophilous habitat. It can be collected in quantity in the wild, or will develop on dung kept in damp chambers. S. aciculosa is the only other species of Stilbella known to occur on dung; it forms smaller synnemata with yellow conidial masses, and has longer conidia.
     Singh and Webster (1973) demonstrated that Stilbella fimetaria (as S. erythrocephala) produces a diffusible antibiotic in agar or liquid culture which significantly inhibits growth of many other coprophilous fungi and bacteria.
     Ultrastructural aspects of conidium ontogeny of S. fimetaria have been described in the introductory part of this paper.
     Notes on synonyms: Some of the synonyms of S. fimetaria appear to have resulted from the idea that coprophilous fungi are "host"-limited, but I have found no evidence to support this hypothesis in this species. Specimens examined from a variety of dungs were identical in microscopic appearance, though the synnemata tend to be smaller on smaller dung pellets, such as those of mice. Cultures isolated from carnivore dung tend to have a strong salty smell and also tend to fruit more readily on agar than cultures originating on herbivore dung, but are otherwise identical.
     Although Ditmar's specimen of Stilbum erythrocephalum has apparently been lost, his colour figures leave no doubt that his species is a synonym of Stilbella fimetaria. A neotype for S. erythrocephalum, the lectotype species of Stilbella (Clements and Shear, 1931), is designated above.
     Two specimens of Stilbum leiopus are present in herb. Ehrenberg (B). Only one contains a synnematous fungus and this is designated lectotype above.
     The ex-type culture of Stilbum coprophilum no longer produces synnemata. From the original diagnosis and the mononematous conidiophores produced in the culture, it is possible to confirm the synonymy with S. fimetaria.
     Tubercularia lichenicola was described as occurring on a lichen, but as Hawksworth (1979) pointed out, the substrate of the type specimen appears to be bird dung.
     See also Stilbum fimetarium var. simiarum and Stilbum villosum in the excluded species section.

LG Nobi